What Is An En Dash And How Do I Use It?

You don’t hear as much about them as other dashes, but you’ve most likely seen them around. En dashes are longer than dashes or hyphens but shorter than em dashes, helpful right?

Let’s dive into more about the en dash, what it is, and how to use it! We’ll be more helpful, we promise.

What is an en dash?

En dashes () can denote a range or connect the endpoints of a route.

They can also show a contrast or connection between two words.

It usually appears directly between the numbers or words it’s connecting, without spaces.

In traditional metal typesetting, an em unit referred to the distance from the top to the bottom of a single piece of type. An en unit referred to half this distance. The widths of the em and en dashes matched these units. Today, the en dash is about half as long as an em dash, while the hyphen is about half as long as an en dash.

How to type an en dash

Typing an en dash is a little different depending which operating system you’re using. In most word processing programs (like Microsoft Word or Google Docs), you can find it listed under Special Characters or Symbols. Most of these programs (as well as some email clients) will even autocorrect if you type . You may be using en dashes without even realizing it!

In Microsoft Word, you can type an en dash by pressing the Ctrl key and the on your number pad. On a PC, you can type an em dash anywhere by pressing Alt and 0150 on the number pad. On a Mac, you can press Option and .

When to use an en dash?

As we outlined above, en dashes do have specific uses. Let’s look at each use a bit closer to help explain why these en dashes are helpful.

Ranges in numbers

You’ll often see en dashes connecting numbers to show a range. Sometimes the range is approximate, as in “There were 5075 people at the event.” Other times, it’s inclusive, as in “The story is on pages 1983.”

Ages

Another range in numbers an en dash can connect is ages, of course! For example: “This classroom is for 4–5 year olds.”

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Dates

Similarly, an en dash can connect a range of dates, as in “She’s going on vacation from January 4February 1.”

Try to avoid using an en dash in situations where it could be mistaken for the minus sign. That can be confusing.

Scores

If you’ve ever looked up a score for a game, you’ve probably seen an en dash. For example: “The Cubs won 4–3 on Sunday.”

Amounts

As in our example above, amounts are a pretty common reason to use a range of numbers and, therefore, an en dash! For example: “There were 5075 people at the event.”

Showing relationships and conflicts

The en dash can show either competition or partnership between two people or groups. In the phrase “GiantsA’s game,” the en dash implies the word versus.

On the other hand, the “ParksBukowski paper” implies a paper written in partnership by both Parks and Bukowski. The “United StatesCanada trade agreement” refers to an equal agreement between both countries.

Showing both a relationship and a conflict, phrases like the “Iran–Iraq war” are optimal for en dashes.

Routes

An en dash can replace the word to when it shows the endpoints of a route, as in “The San FranciscoDenver flight was delayed.”

Conversely, when there’s a hyphen between two locations, it implies they form a single region. For example, “New York CityLong Island” refers to the region encompassing both New York City and Long Island.

How does an en dash differ from a hyphen and em dash?

These three dashes may look like they have a lot in common, but as you can probably guess, the em dash and the hyphen have specific uses too!

En dash vs. em dash

The longer em dash is usually used to separate out asides in a sentence or denote a pause. Some style guides prefer using the en dash for creating asides. When you use the en dash this way, you should add spaces around the dashes. Check your individual style guide to be sure. If you aren’t using a style guide, the most important thing is to just stay consistent throughout your work.

An em dash  signal an interruption (see our article on interrupting sentences for more on that!) or amplification (“expanding”) of an idea.

En dash vs. hyphen

Hyphens are the shortest of the dashes. They link words and parts of words. They can connect prefixes or break up a word at the end of a line of text. They can also combine two or more words that describe a noun.

Now be quick and take this quiz on hyphens, en dashes, and em dashes!