Defoliation of seedlings and bearing trees often occurs in July and August.
Also shriveled kernels are the result of defoliation by early frosts which may be very local and affect some trees and not others.
Therefore, trees deprived of their foliage are liable to perish, and they are injured in proportion to their defoliation.
Caterpillars, grubs, and beetles specialize on defoliation and feed upon the leaves, the lungs of the trees.
The aphids were very numerous and unfortunately caused the defoliation of all the currants with the exception of the blacks.
The period of defoliation varies in different countries according to the nature of their climate.