1881, from German Dachshund (15c.), from Dachs (Old High German dahs, 11c.) "badger" (perhaps literally "builder;" see texture) + Hund "dog" (see hound (n.)).
Probably so called because the dogs were used in badger hunts, their long, thin bodies bred to burrow into setts. French taisson, Spanish texon, tejon, Italian tasso are Germanic loan words.